In the previous blog post, A Decoded NSA Extraterrestrial Radio Signal from Outer Space, I discussed and decoded a message which the NSA claims was an extraterrestrial signal from outer space. I just happened to stumble upon it when I found some evidence of tampering with UFO videos on Youtube - which if true, could have only been done by the NSA. I showed that it was not a hypothetical cryptography exercise, nor was it a signal received from Sputnik. So, if it really was an extraterrestrial radio signal, where did it come from? What is the historical context? The NSA does not give any information surrounding this radio signal. This was previously classified, but was released into the public domain in 2004.
So here are the facts: the article Key to Extraterrestrial Messages by Howard Campaigne was published in the NSA Technical Journal in 1969, which began to decode a series of messages first published in the NSA Technical Journal in 1966. The message describes the periodic table of the elements with 18 groups. However, scientists did not define and standardize the 18 groups of the periodic table until 1988: this radio signal is describing scientific knowledge that is over 20 years ahead of its time. Another thing that is different about this periodic table of the elements is that it redefines the groups of the periodic table by shifting the transitional metals - including the Lanthanoids and Actinoids - to the right of the noble gases. Although I did find a 1950 periodic table of the elements that did this, this seems to be the exception as I can find no reference to it when studying the history of the periodic table. So why shift the transitional metals to the right? When done this way, then groups 1-8 perfectly define the number of the electrons in the outer shell of the atom, and groups 9-18 imperfectly define the number of the electrons in the secondmost outer shell of the atom. Whereas our periodic table numbers the groups in numerical order from 1-18, this one numbers them from 1-2, then from 9-18, then from 3-8. There is no periodic table of the elements that numbers the groups in this manner, and yet, one can argue that this periodic table is superior to ours as the group numbers make sense.
WHO IS HOWARD CAMPAIGNE?
So lets take a look at Howard Campaigne. According to an unclassified interview from NSA he is a mathematician and cryptographer who served during World War II, after which he joined the research group in Navy Security Group, AFSA and NSA. From the interview we learn he spent time in New Mexico. In 1947 he was involved in a research group that combined mathematics, radio signals, and computers. The interview then jumps to 1957. At the time the computers were not fast enough for their requirements: see http://invention.smithsonian.org/downloads/fa_cohc_tr_camp700709.pdf where by 1953 they had a working solution, but the computer was too slow. In the early 1950s his group helped convince IBM to use binary encoding for computer calculations, which now every computer in the world now follows. Now according to http://9websites.com/airforce/nsa-comp.htm, under President Eisenhower Campaigne was in charge of a project to develop fast computers for the NSA for cryptography purposes:
Engstrom collated ideas from NSA scientists and cryptanalysts regarding long-term research into super-fast computers and research into [redacted] cryptosystems. These suggestions, which called for work both inside and outside the fence, coalesced into a proposal that came to be known as "Project FREEHAND." A subsidiary effort to develop hardware became known as "Project LIGHTNING." General Canine, who in 1956 was facing retirement, wanted the plan begun before he left. ...President Eisenhower approved Project LIGHTNING in a meeting with General John Samford, the new DIRNSA, giving a powerful boost to the project. Engstrom believed that with an adequate budget and a genuine "free hand," NSA could create a new generation of super-fast computers, perhaps tripling processing speed at a stroke [redacted]. To manage LIGHTNING, he chose Howard Campaigne, the data processing pioneer. NSA went to three major contractors for research on the latest technologies, with other commercial firms and some universities taking smaller aspects of the overall research plan.
DATE OF THE RADIO SIGNAL
So, was this radio signal from outer space received in 1966? The article says that it was received "recently" but does not provide a date. After I decoded it I realized it describes a periodic table of the elements that ends with Californium (element 98), which was discovered in 1950. In his interpretation Campaigne mentions elements up to element 103, but does not explain why the periodic table stops at 98. Einsteinium - element 99 - was discovered in December of 1952 after the United States exploded an atomic bomb in the Pacific that year. Moreover, the radio signal seems to be in the format of a standard for extraterrestrial radio signal communication first proposed by British mathematician Lancelot Hogben in a 1952 lecture entitled, Astraglossa, or First Steps in Celestial Syntax. This particular lecture was referenced in another NSA technical article written by Lambros D. Callimos, a U.S. Army cryptologist who joined the NSA when it was first formed in 1952. Moreover, the radio signal seems to be a response to a message given in that format. So, if I were to take an educated guess on when this radio signal was received, I would guess it would be either late 1952 or in the year 1953, and not much later than that.
If in fact communication with extraterrestrials via radio signals using mathematical messages was established in 1952 or 1953, most likely Howard Campaigne was involved. As he is the one who presented the message in the NSA technical journal, he is also likely to have been involved as top secret information tends to be compartmentalized. By 1957, we learn that Howard Campaigne is just one step removed from President Eisenhower to develop faster computers for cryptography purposes.
UFO SIGHTINGS AT THE TIME OF THE RADIO SIGNAL
Lets take a look at UFO sightings at the proposed date of the radio signal, beginning in 1952. In 1952, Eisenhower won the presidential election by a landslide. During the year of the U.S. presidential election, there was a sighting of a formation of several UFOs over the capital of Washington in July of 1952. Jets were scrambled, and it caused a widespread panic among the public. Here is actual footage of the UFOs flying in formation around the capital. Three of them are in triangular formation, similar to the formation of the 3 UFOs following the U.S. space shuttle which I showed in an earlier video:
If extraterrestrial UFOs were flying in such an obvious manner around Washington D.C., it is obvious: they are trying to initiate a contact. As it is the year of the presidential election, they may in fact be more interested in the upcoming president rather than the current President Truman. And if they were trying to initiate a contact, it is quite possible that they would have attempted to establish communication by radio signal.
I found this interesting article entitled Eisenhower and His Alien Contacts: Part 2 which has collected reports of two mysterious satellites found to be orbiting in 1954. Major Donald Keyhoe, head of the UFO research group National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) reported that huge objects were tracked by radar over Washington in May of 1953. In June, another huge UFO was sighted in the vicinity of Washington. In May of 1954 Keyhoe reported in a national interview that two artificial satellites orbiting the earth since late 1953 had been detected by the Air Force at White Sands New Mexico and that "scientists were working hard to figure out what the satellites were and where they came from." Then the news started to become public in the mainstream media, with publications such as Aviation Week and the New York Times reporting on these two artificial satellites orbiting earth, referencing work from an electrical engineer John P. Bagby who was able to make astronomical observations of the objects. For an actual audio recording reporting on these artificial satellites, go here: http://yourlisten.com/channel/content/16929713/The_Mysterious_1954_Satellites. According to the broadcast, one of the scientists examining the satellites was Dr. Lincoln La Paz of the University of New Mexico, who happened to also be one of the witnesses to the Roswell crashes in 1947. Sources had considered that these satellites held the potential to be "stepping stones for interplanetary travel" - whatever that means.
Remember, in 1953 and 1954 there was no such thing as an artificial satellite. The first satellite launched into orbit from earth was Sputnik, which did not happen until 1957. What is even more interesting, is that these public reports sent Robert Cutler, the National Security Advisor to President Eisenhower, into a rage. He and the White House then arranged for the story to be censored and covered up - thus to this day, hardly anyone knows about these orbiting satellites which appeared in 1953 and 1954. I ask one simple question: WHAT WAS OF INTEREST TO NATIONAL SECURITY THAT THIS STORY WAS NOT TO BE KNOWN TO THE PUBLIC? UFOs are sighted every day. But these orbiting satellites were not going away. In July 1954 Robert Cutler had written a memo mentioning a "Special Studies Project" briefing to be given by the MJ-12 group (see Memo of Robert Cutler. MJ-12 is reportedly the shadow organization in charge of the UFO subject.
AN EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIO SIGNAL?
The story of the two orbiting satellites has an interesting twist. On November 28, 1954 it was discussed on the radio station WGN in Chicago. The hosts of the show decided they would try to make contact with the satellites. They would turn off their microphones, and the aliens were expected to tune into the radio transmitter and send a message back to the radio listeners. They encouraged everyone to tape record the show. At 11:25 they sent the message saying "Come in Outer Space" and then turned off the microphones. No response came, and they left the studio, but had left the transmitter on. When they were gone from the studio, four callers called in and reported they had heard something. Moreover, CIA documents indicate that HAM radio operators had also taped wired coded messages from outer space. One caller said they were upset by the "joke" that the radio station had played on them by playing the tune of "Jingle Bells" on the radio station. But the radio station replied they had not sent any transmission of the song "Jingle Bells." The hosts arranged for a meeting, made a copy of the tape, and then played it several times on the radio station for all to hear.
And that should be the end of the story. But its not...as with anything related to UFOs, things just get stranger the the deeper one digs. In 1955 the CIA - of all organizations - became interested in the Jingle Bells recording. As the CIA was on record as "not interested" in anything related to UFOs, the CIA agents dressed up as Air Force officers, and eventually obtained a copy of the Jingle Bells recording. Excuse me, the CIA? Why would they be interested in a recording of a Jingle Bells song? In 1957 a researcher tried to follow up with the CIA on this Jingle Bells tape, and was given the complete run around until he gave up. In 1997 the CIA continued to give a distorted version of the story. Just what in the world is so important about a Jingle Bells song? Imagine a cryptographic analyst tasked with the job to decipher a hidden "code" in these lines:
Dashing through the snow
In a one horse open sleigh
Over the fields we go
Laughing all the way
Bells on bob tails ring
Making spirits bright
What fun it is to laugh and sing
A sleighing song tonight
Oh, jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh
Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh.
* Message #13: The letter "J" is not 10, it is the number 8.It now makes sense. If that NSA extraterrestrial message is indeed valid, and if that message was received between 1952 to 1954 - of course the CIA would be interested in that Jingle Bells song. I had previously marked message #13 as important as it sends the message "HI". These letters are between G and J, which backwards is JIHG - close to Jingle. "J" is 8 which comes after "G" which is 7. Imagine the hours the analysts spent slowing down that tape recording. Oh the humor those ETs must have.
* Message #13: The numbers skip from G to J in order to say "Hi". G to J? Or J to G? JIHG? Jingle?
* Message #14: The letter "J" is the number 8.
* Message #15: The letter "J" is the number 8.
* Message #16: It is false that 8 (the letter "J") is less than the number 7.
* Message #18: The letter "J" is the number 8.
* Message #19: Octal arithmatic, with "J" as the number 8.
* Message #23: The word "JNV" means "contain".
* Message #24: The word "JAV" means "the set of positive integers".
* Message #25: The word "JAV" means "the set of non-negative integers".
* Message #26: The word "JOV" means "the set of rational numbers".
* Message #28: The word "JEV" means "the set of real numbers".
* Message #29: The limit of "JBV" is the number 1.
* Message #30: "JAV" is a set that contains a series of numbers.
Now, while I was writing this blog I stumbled upon yet something else, called "Project Sigma". I am trying to track down the original story for this - the story is everywhere, but I cannot find the source. Here is one example from http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread60567/pg1:
This, just blows me away. There are rumors of a face to face meeting with President Eisenhower which are documented here: http://www.presidentialufo.com/dwight-d-eisenhower. It all started with a declassified NSA document which was partially decoded by Howard Campaigne, a cryptographer who influenced IBM in choosing binary coding for computers. From internal evidence, if it is a valid radio signal, it can be easily dated to 1952-1953. And here we have stories of a secret project to establish radio communication with extraterrestrials using "the computer binary language", and that contact was made in 1953. AND NOTE: this story circulated long before that NSA document concerning an extraterrestrial radio communication was declassified. And once deciphered, anyone can conclude that if it is valid, it can be internally dated to 1953.
That I am on the right track, I can see from some other disinformation web sites that have been put up to confuse people concerning the NSA document concerning the extraterrestrial signal. I am seeing some obvious false information in order to lead people away from the conclusion that this is dated to 1953. And yet the NSA puts it right up on their web site - some want this to be known, others do not. Because once this is known, it becomes easier to put 2 and 2 together on this. Obviously, anyone can see that I am blogging as I discover this, I had no idea the trail of information would lead to this.
The source of the story concerning Project Sigma, which made radio contact with extraterrestrials, seems to one William Cooper (or Bill Cooper). He has a boat load of information on this. Here is an excerpt from a speech he gave to MUFON in 1989 (from The Origin, Identity and Purpose of MJ-12), based on top secret documents he read in the early 70s:
President Truman created the supersecret National Security Agency (NSA) by secret Executive order on November 4,1952. Its primary purpose was to decipher the alien communications, language, and establish a dialogue with the extraterrestrials. This most urgent task was a continuation of the earlier effort. The secondary purpose of the NSA was to monitor all communications and emissions from any and all electronic devices worldwide for the purpose of gathering intelligence, both human and alien, and to contain the secret of the alien presence. Project SIGMA was successful. The NSA also maintains communications with the Luna base and other secret space programs.That he is the source, is shown that the previous text was copied from his speech:
In 1953 astronomers discovered large objects in space which wereA most unexpected turn of events. This speech of Bill Cooper was given in 1989, and the NSA document was not declassified until 2004. And if it is "through radio communications using the computer binary language" then Howard Campaigne was most definitely involved with Project Sigma. And it just happens to occur at the time when a former NSA consultant, Snowden, is on the run for leaking information concerning how the NSA gathers information from everyone's phone records and internet activity. I thought most people already knew that? They have been doing it for years, they are just trying to shift from intercepting voice communications to intercepting internet communications. There is no new "news" there. From here, it is easy to fall into world wide government conspiracies, but I think it is a complicated problem. There is no easy way to deal with this matter. In UFOlogy, it is easy to fall off a cliff, but as long as one sticks to verifiable facts, there is more than enough information to uncover. There is a Project Disclosure witness - John Maynard (ex DIA) - who discovered that there was a secret satellite project called OMNI which was supposed to track radar anomalies on earth. However he noted that most satellites were facing "away" from earth - pointed at the Moon, pointed at blank areas of space. When he asked why, he was told that was classified. His next question was, "Who is coming?" And the reply was, "We do not know."
tracked moving toward the Earth. It was first believed that they were
asteroids. Later evidence proved that the objects could only be
spaceships. Project SIGMA intercepted alien radio communications. When
the objects reached the Earth they took up very high geosynchronous
orbit(s) around the equator. There were several huge ships, and their
actual intent was unknown. Project SIGMA and a new project, PLATO,
through radio communications using the computer binary language, were
able to arrange a landing that resulted in face-to-face contact with
alien beings from another planet. The landing took place in the desert.
UPDATE (6/26/13): RADIO "ANOMALIES" FROM "EPHEMERAL SATELLITES"
This just keeps getting better. I decided to hunt down John P. Bagby, whose research into the satellites of 1954 prompted the articles in Aviation Week and the New York Times which upset the National Security Advisor to President Eisenhower. He worked in the research & development division at Hughes Aircraft Co. in California. This guy was just getting too close to the truth. I found an online section of the issue of the July 16, 1966 issue of Nature online in which he wrote an article entitled Evidence of an Ephemeral Earth Satellite (see also http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v211/n5046/abs/211285a0.html). I will quote a portion of it:
The possibility that the Earth could acquire natural satellites from the debris of large meteoritic impacts on the Moon has been discussed by O'Keefe... During the mid-fifties I analysed evidence of two swarms of such objects in retrograde orbits. However, it has never been conclusively proved that such an ephemeral satellite, with a perigree in the upper atmosphere, has been observed while in orbit and before its final revolutions. I now suggest that the Earth has had such a satellite and that is was observed at least eight times during the period 1956-65. Fortunately, these eight known observations were recorded with sufficient accuracy to permit the determination of an orbit.The calculations of the orbit are then published in the article. The satellite then disappeared. He then concludes, "It is probable that the object decayed in the Earth's atmosphere during January 1966." However, it does not end there. On September 2, 1967 he wrote another article entitled, Radio Anomalies associated with an Ephemeral Satellite still in Orbit. Here is what he said:
ATTENTION was recently directed in Nature to some radio reception anomalies observed in 1962, 1963 and 1965 at several different locations receiving the VLF stations GBR (Rugby) on 16.0 Kc/s and NBA (Panama Canal Zone) on 18.0 Kc/s. These anomalies consisted of an interfering signal just off the nominal transmitted frequency by some 10−7 parts, sometimes above the nominal value and sometimes below it, The interfering signal was often as strong as or stronger than the GBR or NBA transmissions, depending on the location of the receiving station, Two of the possible explanations for these anomalies have been discussed—nearby unknown transmitters operating on the same frequencies1,2, and an alternate antipodal transmission path3. I have studied the Nature report and others2–5 and offer some independent evidence of high frequency radio reception anomalies and a third possible explanation.
OK. Very interesting. The "ephemeral satellite" observed in the mid-fifties, or something similar to it, then reappears and stays in orbit from 1956 to 1965. Not only that, it emits "radio anomalies". The timing of this is significant. In Winter of 1966, after John P. Bagby's publication in nature, Lambros D. Callimos publishes in the NSA technical journal Communications with Extraterrestrial Intelligence. A footnote states that the substance of the article was first presented on September 23, 1965 at the IEEE Conference on Military Electronics in Washington D.C. - BEFORE John P. Bagby published his article in Nature. It would seem that the military was tracking the same thing. Then in response to that article, Howard Campaigne follows up with a set of extraterrestrial radio signals received "recently" from outer space in an article Extraterrestrial Intelligence also published in 1966. This he partially decodes in 1969 in the article Key to Extraterrestrial Messages. But, he messes up the decoding on the periodic table - why? Because scientists did not standardize on 18 groups of the periodic table until 1988! What they don't seem to realize, is that it is rebroadcasting a message sent probably in 1953.
UPDATE (7/1/13): LANCELOT HOGBEN'S PLAN TO CONTACT EXTRATERRESTRIALS
As stated earlier, NSA cryptographer Callimos mentions Lancelot Hogben's Astraglossa, a series of radio signals based on the mathematical concepts. I just found this, from the Dec. 25, 1952 issue of Toledo Blade, in which Lancelot called upon the scientific community to send radio signals to planets in the solar system, specifically Mars:
So did we do this? Is this how it started? Did we aim a radio broadcast at the planets of our solar system, specifically Mars, in 1953? Did this prompt the strange satellites of 1953-54 to appear in orbit around the earth?
And take note: Arthur C. Clarke, the famous science fiction author, headed the British Interplanetary Society where Lancelot Hogben first presented his mathematical radio signals, Astraglossa. Here is what wikipedia says:
Clarke contributed to the popularity of the idea that geostationary satellites would be ideal telecommunications relays. He first described this in a letter to the editor of Wireless World in February 1945 and elaborated on this concept in a paper titled Extra-Terrestrial Relays – Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?, published in Wireless World in October 1945. The geostationary orbit is now sometimes known as the Clarke Orbit or the Clarke Belt in his honour.
It is not clear that this article was actually the inspiration for the modern telecommunications satellite. According to John R. Pierce, of Bell Labs, who was involved in the Echo satellite and Telstar projects, he gave a talk upon the subject in 1954 (published in 1955), using ideas that were "in the air", but was not aware of Clarke's article at the time. In an interview given shortly before his death, Clarke was asked whether he'd ever suspected that one day communications satellites would become so important; he replied
I'm often asked why I didn't try to patent the idea of communications satellites. My answer is always, "A patent is really a license to be sued."
So again, if this is just a "cryptographic exercise" done by the NSA, why would they use an outdated list of elements of the periodic table from 1953? How come Campaigne could not properly decode it? How in the world did the NSA anticipate that the periodic table of the elements had 18 groups before science standardized that in 1988? Are we to believe that this "ephemeral satellite" that exhibits "radio anomalies" at the EXACT SAME TIME as these NSA article are completely unrelated?? Is it just a coincidence that these exact same satellites were observed by the same astronomer who reported on the satellites in the mid-1950s??? Is it just a coincidence that a UFO researcher who claimed to see top secret documents in the late seventies stated in 1989 that the military intercepted and decoded extraterrestrial radio messages in 1953, LONG BEFORE the NSA documents were declassified in 2004?
Was this just an NSA cryptographic exercise? I do not think so.